Document Type


Publication Date

Summer 6-10-2021




The emission properties of “cool” and “warm” white LEDs were studied. The suitability of pulse-width modulation as a method to control LED brightness was examined. Both types of LED demonstrated emission standard deviation minima at a PWM frequency greater than 2000 Hz. The functional wavelength ranges of the LEDs were approximated using the linearity of brightness as a function of pulse-width modulation duty-cycle and the root mean squared deviation from mean for absorbance measurements. Both LED types demonstrated good stability in absorbance measurements over long operation times. The “warm” LED demonstrated a broader range of wavelengths useful for spectrophotometry. This is the dataset of the investigation. (1296 kB)
Data from cool white LEDs (1432 kB)
Data from warm white LEDs