Document Type


Publication Date

Spring 1-15-2022

Publication Title

Calmodulin binding to the dehydrogenase domain of NADPH oxidase 5 alters its oligomeric state




Superoxide generated by NADPH Oxidase 5 (Nox5) is regulated by Ca2+ through the interaction of its self-contained Ca2+ binding domain and dehydrogenase domain (DH). Recently, calmodulin (CaM) has been reported to enhance the Ca2+ sensitivity of Nox5 by binding to the CaM-binding domain sequence (CMBD), in which the interaction between CaM and Nox5 is largely unclear. Here, we used the CMBD peptide and truncated DH constructs, and separately studied their interaction with CaM by fluorescence, calorimetry, and dynamic light scattering. Our results revealed that each half-domain of CaM binds one CMBD peptide with a binding constant near 106 M-1 and a binding enthalpy change of −3.81 kcal/mol, consistent with an extended 1:2 CaM:CMBD structure. However, the recombinant truncated DH proteins exist as oligomers, possibly trimer and tetramer. The oligomeric states are concentration and salt dependent. CaM binding appears to stabilize the DH dimer complexed with CaM. The thermodynamics of CaM binding to the DH is comparable to the peptide-based study except that the near unity binding stoichiometry and a large conformational change were observed. Our result suggests that the oligomeric states of Nox5, mediated by its DH domain and CaM, may be important for its superoxide-generating activity.